Professional Readings

Reading #148

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  • Monday, July 17, 2017

Military Review October 1992

  • By: Combined Arms Center, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas
  • Published: October 1992
  • Read "Who Moved My Cheese" article here.

"Multi-domain battle reintroduces the idea that converged cross-domain capabilities across DOTMLPF are an absolute prerequisite for success"

General David G. Perkins, "Multi-Domain Battle: Driving Change to Win in the Future," Military Review, July 2017


Understanding the operating environment, threats, and technology is important to ensure future Army forces are prepared to prevent conflict, shape security environments, and win in future war as part of the Joint Force. Anticipating the demands of future armed conflict not only requires an understanding of the immutable nature of war but also an appreciation of the changes in the character of armed conflict. New technologies and changes that stem from new strategic guidance, revised operating concepts, and emerging security challenges require the Army to stay ahead of change by operating differently and providing the Joint Force with unique capabilities that enable it to prevent conflict, shape security environments, and win wars.

In this week's professional reading, "The Battle of Convergence in Four Dimensions," an essay originally published in 1992, MAJ Robert Toguchi and James Hogue recognize that advances in technology employed during Operation Desert Storm have potential to improve the operational effectiveness of the future force by expanding operations into "all dimensions." Toguchi and Hogue argue that these advances will enable forces to converge capabilities to "hit the enemy from all possible approaches" with greater precision, speed, and efficiency.

Although AirLand Battle enabled US forces to rapidly destroy the Iraqi Army, it focused primarily on two domains. To maximize the potential of new technology by expanding operations into all domains and converge capabilities, the authors propose a new operational concept: "Battle of Convergence - Four Dimensions" (BOC IV). The objective of BOC IV is to deny enemy freedom of action by dominating all domains and dictating the terms of operations. To achieve this objective, BOC IV entails the synchronization and maneuver of dispersed air, naval, space, and ground capabilities in time and space. The authors conclude that BOC IV's emphasis on synchronizing and converging capabilities from all domains will improve Joint Force integration and the operational effectiveness of Joint operations.

This week's professional reading highlights the importance of thinking clearly about the problem of future warfare. To develop BOC IV, Toguchi and Hogue examined threats, missions, technology, and history. The authors considered the spectrum of threats and an array of missions in complex, mountainous, and desert terrain that the Joint Force could potentially execute. Advances in technology enable forces executing BOC IV to achieve greater depth, synchronization, flexibility, and simultaneity but leaders must always recognize that technology has limits and there are no "silver bullet" technological solutions. Operations and campaigns by General Helmuth von Moltke, Napoleon, and General Eisenhower provided historical insight on the problems and prospects convergence entails. Ultimately, BOC IV represents a conceptual foundation for the future informed by changes in the character of conflict.

To develop a sound conceptual foundation of the future that drives future force development, Army leaders think clearly about future armed conflict; learn in a focused, sustained, and collaborative manner; analyze what is learned and then implement solutions to overmatch enemies and adversaries. Various ARCIC and TRADOC initiatives and efforts enable Army leaders to develop concepts and capabilities that improve future force effectiveness. For example, the Army's Mission Command Network must enable commanders to develop and maintain situational understanding and maneuver across domains to dispersed locations in order to conduct joint combined arms operations. The Network Integration Evaluation (NIE) is the Army's largest annual operational exercise that integrates, tests, and evaluates network systems and capabilities to enable senior leaders to make informed modernization decisions. The Joint Modernization Command will conduct the next NIE at Fort Bliss, TX 19-31 July 2017.

Another important venue is the Mad Scientist program. Mad Scientist is a TRADOC initiative and a community of action that continually explores the future through collaborative partnerships and continuous dialogue with academia, industry and government. The next Mad Scientist event, 25-26 July 2017, will explore the characteristics of a multi-domain battle in 2050; future roles of Leaders and Soldiers; potential ethical dilemmas created by emerging technologies; disruptive technologies; and dense urban environments, all of which will help inform the development of the Multi-Domain Battle Concept. Ultimately, NIE and Mad Scientist are but a few of the many TRADOC and ARCIC events that help shape the future Army.

ARCIC and TRADOC also participate in numerous external events that inform future force development and strengthen collaboration between the Army, and Joint and Multi-National partners. The Regional Commanders Conference will create a common vision and shared understanding of ways to address U.S. and NATO defense posture and force development concerns to ensure current and future interoperability and readiness to execute Multi-Domain Battle.

To learn more about the Network Integration Evaluation (NIE), Information may be accessed here

To learn more about Mad Scientist or participate in the event at Georgetown University virtually, access the following link:

To learn more about Multi-Domain Battle and read the latest articles, information may be accessed here

As you read the article, consider the impacts on the following Army Warfighting Challenges:
#1 Develop Situational Understanding:

How to develop and sustain a high degree of situational understanding while operating in complex environments against determined, adaptive enemy organizations.

#2/3 Shape the Security Environment:

How the Army influences the security environment and engages key actors and local/regional forces in order to consolidate gains and achieve sustainable security outcomes in support of Geographic Combatant Commands and Joint requirements.

#5 Counter Weapons of Mass Destruction:

How to prevent, reduce, eliminate, and mitigate the use and effects of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high yield explosives (CBRNE) threats and hazards on friendly forces and civilian populations.

#7 Conduct Space, Cyberspace, Electronic Warfare, and Communications Operations :

How to assure access to and integrity of critical data and information, across multiple domains, in an increasingly contested and congested operational environment, while simultaneously denying the same to the enemy.

#9 Improve Soldier, Leader, and Team Performance:

How to develop resilient Soldiers, adaptive leaders, and cohesive teams committed to the Army professional ethic that are capable of accomplishing the mission in environments of uncertainty and persistent danger.

#10 Develop Agile and Adaptive Leaders:

How to develop agile, adaptive, and innovative leaders who thrive in conditions of uncertainty and chaos and are capable of visualizing, describing, directing, and leading and assessing operations in complex environments and against adaptive enemies.

#11 Conduct Air-Ground Reconnaissance and Security Operations:

How Army formations conduct continuous integrated reconnaissance and security operations across multiple domains (air/land/cyberspace/space/maritime) to rapidly develop the situation while in contact with the enemy and civilian populations.

#12 Conduct Joint Expeditionary Maneuver and Entry Operations:

The Army needs formations that can rapidly deploy into contested environments, quickly transition to operations, and be sustained to maintain high operational tempo with the overmatch necessary to destroy or defeat enemy forces.

#13 Conduct Wide Area Security:

How do Army forces establish and maintain security across wide areas (wide area security) and across multiple domains to protect forces, populations, infrastructure, and activities necessary to shape security environments, consolidate gains, and set conditions for achieving policy goals.

#14 Ensure Interoperability and Operate in Joint, Inter-organizational, Multinational Environment:

How to integrate joint, inter-organizational, and multi-national partner capabilities and campaigns to ensure unity of effort and accomplish missions across the range of military operations.

#15 Conduct Cross-Domain Maneuver:

How Army forces, operating as part of a joint, interorganizational, and multinational force, train, organize, equip, and posture sufficiently to deter or defeat highly capable peer threats in the degraded, contested, lethal, and complex future operational environment.

#16 Set the Theater Sustain Operations and Maintain Freedom of Movement:

How to set the theater, provide strategic agility to the joint force, and maintain freedom of movement and action during sustained and high tempo operations at the end of extended lines of communication in austere environments.

#17/18 Employ Cross-Domain Fires:

How to employ cross-domain fires to defeat the enemy and preserve freedom of action across the range of military operations (ROMO).

#19 Exercise Mission Command:

How to understand, visualize, describe, and direct operations consistent with the philosophy of mission command to seize the initiative over the enemy and accomplish the mission across the range of military operations.

#20 Develop Capable Formations:

How to design Army formations capable of rapidly deploying and conducting operations for ample duration and in sufficient scale to accomplish the mission.

Continuous feedback, collaboration, and teamwork are keys to the success of the Campaign of Learning and driving innovation in the Army. Please use the Army Warfighting Challenges as the framework to contribute your ideas and recommendations with respect to this topic to improve our ability to innovate as we develop the current and future force.

The Army Warfighting Challenges (AWFC) framework may be accessed here:

For previous weekly readings go to: ARCIC Professional Readings

  1. Army Operating Concept, TRADOC Pam 525-3-1, 30 October 2014
  2. Multi-Domain Battle

All the best,